Category Archives: Nature

More Protection for Sharks in the Waters of the Dutch Caribbean

Major steps taken for international protection of Caribbean sharks

Yarari Marine Mammal and Shark Sanctuary

In September, 2015, the Dutch State Secretary of Economic Affairs opened the Yarari Marine Mammal and Shark Sanctuary, creating the eleventh shark sanctuary in the world. Since that time, additional work has been done to enact further protection for sharks in the waters of the Dutch Caribbean.

Eight shark species are added to SPAW

Just this week, on March 13th, 2017, it was officially decided to protect eight shark species under the international Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) Protocol following a proposal by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs in cooperation with a team of shark experts. The SPAW protocol is the only cross-border legislative instrument for nature conservation in the Wider Caribbean Region.

Political representatives of 14 Caribbean countries (the Netherlands represents the Caribbean islands Saba, St. Eustatius and Bonaire) came together in Cayenne, French Guiana to vote which species would officially be added to the SPAW protocol. Through the SPAW protocol, which is a United Nations initiative, the signatory countries set agreements to protect vulnerable animals and their unique habitats.  The agreements concern trade and fisheries, as well as tourism and coastal development. Until now, no sharks or rays were included in the protocol, despite being an especially threatened animal group, both on a global scale and in the Caribbean region. The main threats to shark populations are over-fishing and destruction of vital habitats such as coral reefs and mangroves.

Threatened species

More protection for sharks in the Dutch Caribbean.The Ministry of Economic Affairs proposed a shortlist of eight shark species for listing on the protocol. This included three species of Hammerhead shark, the Whale shark, the Oceanic Whitetip shark, the sawfish (of which few people know it is a shark), and two manta ray species. All of these species are Caribbean natives and threatened by human interference. Protection is needed to ensure the species are safeguarded for the future. In November 2016, the proposals of all eight species were accepted during a technical meeting in Miami. Today’s vote was the final step towards legal protection.

Together with the shark and rays, another fish, the Nassau Grouper, as well as a bird, the Painted bunting, and the Florida tree snail were also listed for protection under the SPAW Protocol.

About sharks and rays

Sharks and rays belong to the animal group of Elasmobranchs, a subclass of the cartilaginous fish. As large predators, elasmobranchs keep our largest and most important ecosystem healthy and productive. They are also key contributors to maintaining the natural balance of coral reefs, adding to their biodiversity and durable function. All available evidence points to a strong local decline in shark numbers in the Caribbean, mirroring the dramatic decline of sharks globally. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) currently estimates that one-quarter of all shark and ray species are threatened with extinction, mainly from over-fishing and habitat destruction.

(Source:  RCN)


Susan Davis, Bonaire InsiderSusan Davis has been living on Bonaire for over 25 years. She is a PADI Master Instructor, and an underwater and topside photographer.  She also enjoys writing on The Bonaire Insider tourism news blog.


 

Eat ‘Til You’re Full at Taste of Bonaire, Walk it Off on a Full Moon Hike

Taste of Bonaire and a full moon hike top the charts for weekend events.

This week has two ever-popular events, and they are timed just right!  On Saturday evening, be in Wilhelmina Park for the Bon Topa (Let’s Meet) Edition of Taste of Bonaire, from 6:30 PM until 11:00 PM.  On Sunday, get in some healthy exercise with STINAPA’s Full Moon Hike of the Lagadishi Trail.

Ban Topa (Let’s Meet) Edition of Taste of Bonaire in Wilhelmina Park.

This is a very special Taste of Bonaire because anyone attending will have the opportunity to provide Bonaire’s tourism office with their ideas and feedback on a special survey about the future of Bonaire’s tourism and the island’s tourism strategic plan.

Music, performances, arts and crafts, and food.

But of course, there will be music, dancing, arts and crafts stall to peruse, and the main event, food!  Both local and international foods can be sampled while enjoying music from
Grupo Kariño, FMK Formashon Musical Krioyo, and Projekto 2000.

Special performances and a new debut single by Jeon.

There will be performances from the Dominican Dancers, local dance artist Semi Marten–together with her dance partner from Curacao– and, direct from Aruba, we’ll be enjoying Jeon (Biggy Boy). At this special event, Jeon will also debut a new single dedicated to Bonaire.

Full moon hike of Washington Park’s Lagadishi Trail.

And, should you overindulge in all of the great variety of foods on Saturday evening, STINAPA gives you the opportunity to walk off those extra calories on their Full Moon Hike of the Lagadishi Trail in Washington Park on Sunday, March 12th, 2017 from 5:00 PM to 8:00 PM.

What you’ll see on the Lagadishi Trail.

Full moon hike on the lagadishi trail.The Lagadishi Trail takes one along the windward coast and back. You’ll see a limestone plateau that provides a complete spectrum of Bonairean windward scenery: historic sites, xerophytic vegetation (plants such as cactus, which are adapted to dry habitat), sand dunes, mangroves, a salt pan (a shallow seawater lake, which evaporates seasonally leaving a residue of salt), blowholes, and a true oceanic beach are some of the components of this trail. Flamingos are frequently seen in the salt pan. Interpretative signs are provided on this trail.

Items to bring on the trail.

Don’t forget to put on some walking shoes that are comfortable. Bring a flashlight along, because even if it is full moon you do want to see what’s on the ground right in front of you, as you don’t want to hit your toes against rocks or even cacti. Don’t forget to bring your own bottle of water and snacks if necessary.

Register your participation.

To participate, please call STINAPA at 717-8444 before 4:00 PM today. There is space for 25 people, and the entrance fee is $10 per person.  Meet at the entrance to Washington Slagbaai National Park at 5:00 PM.

 

Enjoy your weekend!

Bonaire's Calendar of Events

 

(Source:  TCB, STINAPA)

 

 

 

Reef Collapse at Keepsake Dive Site, Klein Bonaire

Keepsake dive site at Klein Bonaire experienced an underwater collapse in January, 2017.

At Keepsake on the southern side of Klein Bonaire, a large section of the reef recently collapsed in an underwater landslide. On the morning of January 20th, 2017, STINAPA personnel investigated the site and made their assessment.

Precautions should be taken when diving and snorkeling at Keepsake.

The site is unstable and STINAPA advises that divers and snorkelers stay away from the area both to protect people as well as prevent further collapse of the reef.

underwater avalanche at Keepsake, Klein Bonaire dive siteDetails of the underwater landslide.

The collapsed area is approximately 65″/20m southwest of the mooring buoy, starting at a depth of 40″/12m. The collapsed zone extends to a depth of at least 130″/40m. The total length of the collapsed zone is at least 100″/30m, if not longer. The width of the collapse is approximately 52″/16m near the top, and 92″/28m wide at a depth of 75″/23m, widening further at deeper depths.

Unfortunately, there were very few living corals left within the affected area. STINAPA personnel attempted to right a few toppled corals that remained, but deemed that the area was too unstable to work safely, as there is a risk of further reef collapse.

Reasons why reefs may collapse.

These types of reef collapses on steep slopes are a natural occurrence on such sloping reefs as at Keepsake, and they are most likely caused by reef bio-erosion. Living organisms such as sponges, worms, urchins and fish break down coral structures by boring, drilling, rasping and scraping the reef. There is speculation that sound waves from large passing ships may exacerbate this reef instability and trigger the collapse. However, there is no evidence to support this claim at the moment. Another attributing factor could be a 4.8 magnitude earthquake that occurred east of the ABCs on December 28th, 2016 at a depth of .27 mile/440m, which may have played a role in destabilizing the reef shelf. At the moment there is no singular, clear cause of this collapse.

Specific measurements of collapsed area.

The collapse begins at depths ranging from 40-43″/12 to 13m, and extends beyond 131″/40m. There is an outcrop of coral that divides the start of the collapsed zone; the northwest side is 20″/6m wide, the dividing coral ledge is 13″/4m wide, and the southeast side is also 20″/6m wide (these measurements were taken at a depth of between 42-46″/13 and 14m). STINAPA personnel measured the width of the collapsed area at 60″/18m where the collapsed zone was 85″/26m wide, and at 92″/28m where the collapsed zone was 75″/23m wide.

Once again, the reef at Keepsake dive site at Klein Bonaire is not considered stable at this time due to the collapse.  For their own safety, as well as the reef area, it is recommended that divers and snorkelers avoid this dive site for the time-being.

(Source:  STINAPA)

 

 

 

Upcoming Nature Events with Washington Park Hike and Reef Fish Identification

Washington Park Hike and Reef Fish Identification Course offer fun and education.

Hiking in Washington Park on Sunday, February 26th, 2017.

Join STINAPA on Sunday February 26th at 7:00 AM for a Mondi Sùit Hike in Washington Slagbaai National Park. Participants will meet at the park entrance at 7:00 AM.

What will I see?

Hiking in Washington Park, Bonaire

Hiking in Washington Park

This will be a hike of approximately 6 km/3.75 mile, and is rated as an easy hike. It’s also a hotspot for bird-watching. During the hike, participants will have a view of Boka Chikitu and Seru Grandi. You will also pass alongside Saliña Matijs, which many times provides views of Bonaire’s flamingos.

How do I register?

If you would like to participate, please call STINAPA at 717-8444 to reserve your spot. There is space for only 25 people and the participation fee is $10.00 per person. Remember to wear good hiking shoes and a hat, wear sunscreen, and bring your water bottle.


Reef Fish Identification at CIEE on March 6th, 13th, 20th, and 27th, 2017.

Each year, CIEE offers a fun and educational lecture series on Reef Fish Identification, and it is especially suited for divers and snorkelers who want to gain a better knowledge of all those fish they see while enjoying Bonaire’s reefs.

Reef Fish Identification Course

Slender File Fish

This is a four-part lecture series taking place at 6:30 PM on March 6th, 13th, 20th, and March 27, 2017. CIEE lectures are held at their headquarters at Kaya Gobernador N. Debrot #26. All presentations are free, and many fill up quickly, so be sure to arrive with plenty of time.

Bonaire's Calendar of Events

(Source:  STINAPA and CIEE)

 

 

Please Help Nolly, a Stranded Olive Ridley Sea Turtle

Sea turtle strandings on Bonaire are rare.

 

An Olive Ridley Sea Turtle was found stranded at Bonaire’s southern point.

Please help save Nolly, a stranded sea turtleOn the morning of February 8, Sea Turtle Conservation Bonaire (STCB) staff received a call on the hotline. Nolly, a local divemaster, had found a stranded Olive Ridley turtle on the east coast of Bonaire, close to the Willemstoren Lighthouse.

After a first assessment, it became clear that the turtle, which was immediately named after its rescuer by STCB volunteers, is missing her front left flipper and has a deep wound on her left side – possibly caused by the stranding.

Rehabilitation facilities for stranded sea turtles are limited.

As Bonaire is a small island and fortunately strandings are rare, there are no permanent rehabilitation facilities. Therefore, STCB needs to raise money to help with the costs of setting up an assessment tank for “Nolly,” and for all the associated costs, such as x-rays, medication and nutrition.

Sadly, in quite a large percentage of the time, a stranded sea turtle cannot be saved, even with much more specialized services than STCB can offer.

Donations are needed to help defray costs.

Your donation will be used for:

  • Setting up an assessment tank with pump,
  • X-rays,
  • Veterinary costs,
  • Medication,
  • Nutrition.

If STCB raises more than what’s needed to help “Nolly,” the extra donations will also go towards saving Bonaire’s endangered sea turtles.

How you can help.

Visit STCB’s crowdfunding page.  On this site, you can donate whatever amount you are able. No amount is too small.  “Nolly” thanks you, along with everyone at STCB and those of us here on Bonaire.

Sea Turtle Conservation Bonaire is a non-governmental research and conservation organization that has been protecting Bonaire’s sea turtles since 1991.

(Source:  Sea Turtle Conservation Bonaire)

 

Note Update February 14, 2017:

Sadly, STCB reports that Nolly, the Olive Ridley sea turtle that stranded on Bonaire last Wednesday, died suddenly on Monday. Thanks to your amazing support, STCB staff and volunteers were able to do everything possible to give her a chance of survival; but Nolly didn’t make it back to the sea.

Due to the generousity of many of Bonaire’s visitors, an incredible $1,605 was donated for Nolly.  Approximately fifty-five percent of the money raised was used to care for Nolly: donations were spent on veterinary costs, medication, the assessment tank, nutrition, and manpower.

With the remaining donations, STCB will design an exhibit at their office so that visitors can learn more about sea turtle strandings on Bonaire, and Nolly’s situation can help educate about stranded sea turtles.

 

 

 

Upcoming Bonaire Birding Events in February, 2017

Bonaire Birding Events for February.

This month there are a number of great birding events on Bonaire.  If you’ve never considered birdwatching while visiting Bonaire, this month’s events might just convince you to try it out.

The Great Backyard Bird Count February 17-20.

Birding locations from around the world from the Great Backyard Bird Count 2016.

Birding locations from around the world from the Great Backyard Bird Count 2016. Image copyright GBBC, used with permission.

Each year in February, birders, along with those who want to give it a try, join in together from locations around the world to spend some time in their backyards, a resort’s garden, or really anywhere, to see just how many birds they can count and identify.  This year’s census will run from February 17th through 20th and will create a real-time snapshot of where birds are.

Visitors to Bonaire, and residents alike, are all invited to join in, as Bonaire enjoys an enviable amount of bird species, especially during the winter, when migratory species can be found as well.

Tallying your birds is easy with eBird.

Tallying your birds is very easy with eBird, an application by Cornell University’s Lab of Ornithology.  Here’s all you have to do:

1. Register for the count or use your existing login name and password. If you have never participated in the Great Backyard Bird Count or any other Cornell Lab citizen-science project, you’ll need to create a new account. If you already created an account for last year’s GBBC, or if you’re already registered with eBird or another Cornell Lab citizen-science project, you can use your existing login information.

2. Count birds for at least 15 minutes on one or more days of the GBBC. You can count for longer than that if you wish! Count birds in as many places and on as many days as you like—one day, two days, or all four days. Submit a separate checklist for each new day, for each new location, or for the same location if you counted at a different time of day. Estimate the number of individuals of each species you saw during your count period.

3. Enter your results on the GBBC website by clicking “Submit Observations” on the home page. Or download the free eBird Mobile app to enter data on a mobile device. If you already participate in the eBird citizen-science project, please use eBird to submit your sightings during the GBBC. Your checklists will count toward the GBBC.

There’s even a photo contest for the photographers visiting Bonaire.  Lots of tools and additional information for identifying birds can be found at the GBBC website.

Blue-tailed Emerald Hummingbird, commonly seen on Bonaire.

Blue-tailed Emerald Hummingbird, commonly seen in backyards on Bonaire.

Get a starter course with STINAPA biologist, Caren Eckrich.

To make it even easier to participate, join STINAPA biologist, Caren Eckrich, for a short presentation on how to participate in the count.  This lecture will also help you improve your backyard birding skills.  Caren is an engaging speaker, and you won’t even realize how much you are learning, just because you will be having so much fun! Join Caren at CIEE headquarters at Kaya Gobernator N. Debrot #26 on February 14th, 2017 at 7:00 PM.

Count on your own, or count with STINAPA.

If you are not too sure of your birding skills, but would still like to participate, join STINAPA on February 17th in a Backyard Bird Count event at The Cadushi Distillery in Rincon. Everyone is welcome to participate in this try-out garden bird count from 3:00 PM to 5:00 PM. Participants will help count the birds, can ask questions about Bonaire’s birds, and even photograph them (remember the photo contest!).  Yellow orioles, a variety of doves, vireo, and bananaquits are commonly seen at this location in Rincon. Everyone is welcome and it’s free of charge.

Birdwatching Event with STINAPA on February 18.

Groove-billed Ani, seen at LVV.

Groove-billed Ani, seen at LVV.

If you find yourself smitten with Bonaire’s feathered friends, there will be a second event sponsored by STINAPA on Saturday, February 18th, at LVV to learn more about Bonaire’s birds. LVV has a fresh water pond that is great for bird watching. This is the best site for watching a variety of birds, both resident and migratory. Some very rare species have been seen on these birding trips, and the rare Greater Ani, the Smooth-billed Ani from South America, and the Grooved-billed Ani have been recently seen and are breeding in this location.

Bring your binoculars and good shoes. If you don’t have binoculars, STINAPA has some that you may use. The event will take place from 4:30 PM to 6:00 PM.  This activity is free of charge, but donations are always appreciated. Space is limited so please reserve your spot by telephoning STINAPA at 717-8444. LVV is located on Kaminda Lagun next to the wastewater treatment facility.

(Source:  STINAPA, eBird, GBBC Website, CIEE)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Where Have All the Parrots Gone?

Fewer parrots counted in 2017 on Bonaire.

Last Saturday morning, over fifty nature-lovers left the comfort of their warm beds in the wee hours of the morning to spread out over the northern section of Bonaire and count the island’s loras (parrots) as they left their roosts.

Vounteers take a census of Bonaire's parrot population each year.

Volunteers take a census of Bonaire’s parrot population each year.

After a season of more and heavier rains following a multi-year drought, the loras seem to have dispersed around the island, making them more difficult to find and count. During the annual parrot roost count this year, nearly 700 parrots were counted. That is fewer than in previous years, but it is not because they are not here, but rather that they may now be sleeping in locations which are more difficult to access and observe. Therefore, it is the opinion of Echo Foundation, the organizer of the lora count, that not all loras have been counted. The count takes place on the last Saturday of January every year and gives an estimate of the minimum number of parrots on the island.

Parrots heard but not seen.

Once again this year, several teams reported hearing loras or seeing them flying nearby, but not within the area that they were surveying. Two sites near residential areas which last year had nearly 300 loras each, had much less this year. In the area of Sabadeco, for example, the total number dropped from 229 to just 11! Also in the Washington Slagbaai Park, the total count has declined for the second year in a row, with this year having just over 50 birds counted. However, the Park Manager, Paulo Bertuol, suspects there may be new roosts forming and these areas will be included in the surveys next year.

17 different locations were surveyed, in addition to Washington Park.

There were roost sites included this year which haven’t been counted in many years, but which are now showing activity, proving that the loras are regularly moving around the island and periodically changing their roost location. This unpredictable behavior of the loras makes it challenging for the participating volunteers to count them each year. The staff of STINAPA counted inside the Washington Slagbaai Park. Outside the park, over 50 volunteers visited 17 different sites.

How is the census taken and the parrots counted?

The Yellow-shouldered Amazon Parrot on Bonaire.

The Yellow-shouldered Amazon Parrot on Bonaire.

The loras are counted in a simultaneous count, which requires everyone to set off in the very early morning (pre-dawn) hours to locations all over the island. As the loras wake up and depart from the tree where they’ve been sleeping, they are counted. Each lora is only counted once. By adding the numbers which have been simultaneously counted across all the sites, the organizers are able to get a sense of the minimum number of loras on the island. This annual census is important for parrot conservation on Bonaire and for protecting the Yellow-shouldered Amazon Parrot (Amazona barbadensis) globally.

This year’s count was the twenty-second count overall and the twelfth consecutive count. It was organized by Echo, STINAPA, and the Department of Environment and Nature of the island government. To learn more about the loras,  visit www.salbanoslora.info.

(Source:  Echo Foundation)

 

The Candy Striped Crab, a New Marine Species Discovered on Bonaire by Ellen Muller

The Candy Striped Crab, discovered and documented by Ellen Muller, has been officially listed as a new species.

Those who think they have seen it all while diving on Bonaire, they need to re-think that! Talented Bonaire photographer, Ellen Muller, has another new marine species under her weightbelt, with the official recognition of Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae, or otherwise now known as the Candy Striped Hermit.

Ellen’s first new species was a nudibranch.

In August 2007, the Bonaire Insider published an article about a new nudibranch species discovered in Bonaire by Ellen which was later officially added as a new species.  The nudibranch was named Trapania bonellenae, a combination of Bonaire and Ellen.

Ellen’s latest discovery, a new crustacean.

The Candy Striped Crab is a new species found on Bonaire by Ellen Muller.

The Candy Striped Crab is a new species found on Bonaire by Ellen Muller. Pictured here with a Flaming Reef Lobster.

And now, the Candy Striped Hermit has been officially confirmed.  Ellen tell us this about her latest discovery:

On a night dive, in December of 2015, I took some photographs of a Flaming Reef Lobster (Enoplometopus antillensis). Back home, when I looked at the photos on my computer, I noticed an unusual looking, extremely small hermit crab with coloring unlike any that I had seen before. I sent the photo to a crustacean expert, Arthur Anker, who suggested that I forward the photo to Rafael Lemaitre who specializes in hermit crabs. Neither had seen anything like it but the detail in the photo was too poor to make a positive identification. I was told to try and get some better close up photos.

 

Ellen thought to herself that this would be an impossible task, akin to finding a needle in a haystack.  However, she went back to the area where she photographed the lobster, and, lo and behold, she found three of the hermit crabs and got some decent photos and she sent them back to Rafael.

His response?

“This is amazing, shows how little we know of the Caribbean. I still can’t be sure, but even with your earlier photo I had the suspicion it might be a species of Pylopaguropsis, of which several species in the Pacific have similar striking color patterns. There are 16 described species worldwide, but only one is known from the western Atlantic (and it is not that one on just color differences). The species in this genus tend to have very massive right chelipeds, with a flattened chela, much like it appears to be in the photos you just sent. All subject to confirmation by examination of specimens.”

Ellen continued with the proper protocol for confirming her new species.  After obtaining the proper paperwork, a few specimens were sent to the Smithsonian Institution, and it was confirmed that these hermit crabs are indeed a new species. For those who enjoy learning the science behind this, the scientific article can be found here.

The crab is named for her granddaughter, Molly.

As the discoverer of the new hermit crab species, Ellen gets to name it.  She has dubbed this crab Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae after her granddaughter in the hope that Molly will continue the tradition of celebrating and protecting the amazing diversity of marine life in Bonaire’s waters.

Ellen would like to give special thanks to Rafael Lemaitre, who was so enthusiastic about describing this beautiful little crab. Thanks to VIP Diving, Frank van Slobbe, Paul Hoetjes and CIEE’s Rita Peachey and Amy Wilde for their help with this new species.

Congratulations, Ellen, keep it up!  Now, divers have a new marine species to find on their next Bonaire dive trip.

(Source:  Ellen Muller, images and video by Ellen Muller)

 

Washington-Slagbaai National Park Re-Opens After Heavy Rains

Washington Slagbaai National Park re-opens after Bonaire’s recent rains.

Washington Park is once again open to all traffic as of today, January 19th.  The park was recently forced to close after frequent rains, which affected the roads throughout the park.

Additionally, STINAPA has announced that the park will be closed on Sunday, January 22nd, 2017, for repair to the roads which suffered damage from the heavy rains.

If you have plans to visit the park in the coming days, give the park a call at 788-9015 to be sure they are open, especially if the rains continue, as the situation can be amended at any time due to the weather conditions.

(Source:  STINAPA)

 

 

 

 

New Efforts at Te Amo Beach Assist Bonaire’s Turtles

Conservation Efforts Continued: New Vegetation on Te Amo Beach.

 

Bonaire’s Te Amo Beach, directly across from Bonaire International Airport, is a popular meeting area for beaching, snorkeling, and picnic-ing.  As much as people like the area, Bonaire’s nesting turtles like it similarly, and it is also a popular location for turtle nests.

New Green Buttonwood Mangroves Planted

New plants to help turtles are planted at Bonaire's Te Amo Beach.Earlier this month, as part of the Ecological Restoration of Lac and the South of Bonaire, 50 green buttonwood trees (a native species of mangrove) were planted along the inside of the fence on Te Amo Beach. Over time, the green buttonwood will form a natural barrier that will replace the existing fence.

The fence blocks light, which helps turtle hatchlings find the ocean.

The fence, which is covered in palm leaves, has been effective at reducing light pollution from the airport, thereby reducing the disorientation of nesting turtles and hatchlings at Te Amo Beach. As the vegetation alongside the fence grows, it will further reduce light from the airport and the road.

The new vegetation will help nesting turtles, such as the critically endangered hawksbill that likes to nest underneath shore plants. The roots of the trees will also bind the sand, which in its turn prevents the sand from blowing away, maintaining one of Bonaire’s precious beaches. The new vegetation is therefore a win-win; preserving the beach for sea turtles and for humans too!

Conservation efforts are in place to restore Lac and the south of Bonaire.

The conservation efforts at Te Amo Beach, for which Sea Turtle Conservation Bonaire partnered with WILDCONSCIENCE BV, are part of the Ecological Restoration of Lac and the South of Bonaire: a project that is coordinated by the Bonaire Island Government and funded with “natuurgelden” (nature funds) made available by the Dutch government. In addition, Green Label Landscaping N.V. has sponsored part of the tree planting and also the watering of the plants during their first month to ensure that the buttonwood grows successfully.

Read Bonaire's Latest News About Nature

(Source:  STCB)

 

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